A neutral can render an adjudicatory decision through arbitration, private judging and mini-trials.

Through an arbitration procedure, a neutral arbitrator or panel of arbitrators can issue a binding decision to resolve a dispute.
Private or special judging involves a retired or former judge presiding over a private trial and issuing a decision.
A mini-trial is a hybrid procedure that may involve a progressive approach of negotiation, case evaluation and mediation for large business disputes.